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Margalioth See P. Betz, ed.. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation. At least one of them is not quite so fantastic as it may initially appear. He saw two mules saddled for Hormin bar Lilith, each one on a bridge spanning the Dognag river. Hormin was able to jump repeatedly from one to the other while they were moving, presumably and at the same time to be pouring the contents of one wine goblet into a second and back again, without spilling a drop.

They were in fact the deeds of circus-per- formers in the Roman world. The first class even had a specific name: they were desultores. Thus, in a remarkable fresco from Herculaneum we see a tightrope walker who pours wine from a flask into a goblet while on the rope, much as Hormin pours wine while moving from mule to mule Daremberg-Saglio s. Livy Note that the skill was already familiar to Homer. See Iliad This episodic work does not offer any systematic polemical argumenta- tion, but rather ridicules the biographical tales about Jesus in the New Testament. Baneth, ed.

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A possible fourth version with Elijah or Paul as the dominant character in the story Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrasch VI, has been omitted from the discussion here; cf. NB: It is generally believed that each of these three versions appeared as a kind of appendix to Toldot Yeshu. Their origin is unclear.

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On the versions of the Simon-Peter legend and their editions, cf. Particular emphasis is laid on his distinctive role in the separation of Judaism and Christianity.

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He bore his great sufferings in order to redeem you from Hell, and now he warns you and commands you to not to do evil any longer to any Jew. Cambridge ; S. Instead of the Feast of Weeks, you will celebrate the forty days from the moment he was stoned until his ascension to heaven. Instead of the Feast of Booths, you shall celebrate the day of his birth, and on the eighth day after his birth you will celebrate his circumcision.

You must build me a tower within the city; I shall live there until the day I die. They gave him a daily ration of bread and water until the day of his death, and he lived among them. He sent them to every corner of Israel so that he would be remembered in every generation; he has sent all his piyyutim to his teachers.

And Simon sat in the tower for six years until he died. And as he had ordered that he be buried within the tower, that is what [the Christians] did. Then they built an ugly! They call it Peter and this is the name of the stone he sat upon until the day of his death. The individual units underlying the second account contain much addi- tional information about Simon Cephas acting with consistently positive intentions towards the Jews.

Even in the presence of the pope and the bishop he speaks to their defence.

The Poetical Qualities of the Apostle Peter role in leading the Christians to a positive affirmation of Jewish values. Therefore they have no motive for the forced conversion of the Jews: From now on, you must not force upon anyone your teaching with violence or too much zeal. There- fore, anyone who wants to join your religion will come volun- tarily. Even when he says that he will come voluntarily, we shall not accept him until he has lived for thirty days in a house of good people.

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You will not accept a little child younger than nine years of age because a child does not decide things using his reason. Simon demonstrates his faithful- ness to Judaism by his authorship of liturgical hymns which were in- cluded in the public prayers of every Sabbath: The Gentiles immediately built a large tower where he could live, and he was the first pope in the world whom the Greeks have called kleouri.

He lived there alone in a tower and ordained many things. The Gentiles accepted him in [his] isolation, and during that same period of his stay there he composed great hymns for Israel; they all still exist in his name. Accept from me these piyyutim which I have composed, so that God may forgive both me and you; for all that I have done, I did for your benefit and your salvation. Perhaps a distortion of baptismo? All of them agreed that [the hymns] were worthy and in good taste and that it was proper for the hazzanim to include them in their public prayers. To this day, they are accustomed to recite them on every Sabbath.

And this is Simon Cephas whom the Gentiles call St. In the third version Simon Cephas represents an exemplary Jewish sage whose wisdom helps him to become recognised as a leading figure for the Christians with all the ambivalence of the Christian hero and the faithful crypto- Jew: Rabbi Simon went with the Christians and he appeared to them to be a very devout believer.

Every day he stood firm in their false belief. They were not to go to synagogues and houses of study anymore, and they were not to prevent Israel from worship.

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In their eyes he appeared to be a great adherent to their faith more than any other adherent to their false religion. Note the peculiar combination of the names, a combination of Rabbi Abba Saul late first century and third generation of Tannaites, a contemporary of Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel II and the name of the apostle Paul who was formerly called Saul Acts The Christians listened to him because they trusted him com- pletely. They built for him the tower and they carved in the clefts of the rock a living-place for him.

Rabbi Simon sat there in this tower all the time, every day and night.

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He remained alone in his abode with the Torah of Moses. Once a year he went out in front of the gate of the tower, and the Christians gathered around him and prostrated themselves before him on the ground. They believed in him completely and accepted the yoke of his ordinances and commandments for all generations. He kept them away from every commandment of the Torah of Moses, peace be upon him, his ordinances and decrees. In accordance with the name of the rock in which he had settled, the Jews called him Rabbi Simon Cephas. When he was securely locked up in the tower on the rock.

Rabbi Simon worshipped God with all his soul and composed numerous piyyutim, yotzrot, qerovot, ofannim and zulatot for use during the entire year, even as Kalir had done. These are generic terms for the hymns inserted into the benedictions of the Shema and the Amidah. Kalir is Eleazar birabbi Qillir, the greatest composer within the classical Pales- tinian school of Piyyut, cf. The sages handed these piyyutim over to Rabbi Nathan the Babylonian who was the leader of the entire Diaspora the Exilarch.

The practical meaning of these three accounts includes the origin of an apostle of Jesus as a man from the people of Israel, intended as a Jewish response to the Christian stories about the apostle Peter being the first bishop of Rome. Why should Simon Cephas be presented as a renowned poet or paytan? See also E. Hebrew , Bloomington and Indianapolis 3o6ff.


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English translation. In Rome he was elected pope but after an emotional reunion with his father he decided to abolish anti-Jewish decrees and return to Judaism. Elhanan fled secretly from Rome and returned to Mainz resuming his life as a faithful Jew. Mirski, Yosse ben Yosse, Poems Jerusalem , His original name was Petrus Pierleoni. The Pierleoni family had con- verted from Judaism to Christianity almost a century before under Leo IX, and thereafter they used their fortune acquired in banking to support the reform popes, cf. The texts are favourable to such a hypothesis when one assumes that the name of the paytan from Mainz was equated in this story with that of Simon Cephas, without mentioning the city of his origin.

The motif of the so-called apostolic paytan decisively establishes a significant measure of development in the portrayal of Simon-Peter in Jewish folklore. This also encompasses the emotional and spiritual harassment and sense of guilt felt by those who suffered from Christianity through persecution or by those who became Christians by force or circumstance. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that these stories have existed for a long time in a no Compare H.


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Schlichting, Ein judisches Leben Jesu, no. Isaak im Amsterdam M. Hermann, et ah, eds, Jewish Studies Between the Disciplines. As a devotional opus, it won for itself a place in the rite of nearly all the Jewish communities.


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