Never eat or drink in the near vicinity. If an accident occurs, seek medical attention immediately. Ensure that drums containing cyanide are correctly labeled and properly stored. Follow the correct procedures laid down for any process using cyanide. Housekeeping: More accidents are caused by people falling, jumping into and stepping on things than are caused by machinery.
A tidy workplace reduces the risk of accidents.
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Floors, stairs, passages and gangways must be soundly constructed, properly maintained and kept free from obstruction and any substance likely to cause a person to slip. Handrails must be provided for stairs. All ladders must be solidly constructed and properly maintained. Openings in floors, shall wherever necessary to be allowed, be securely fenced.
Precautions: Always walk, never run in the workplace. Never throw rubbish on the floor. Keep gangways and work areas free of metal bars, protrusions, etc. Use approved routes when moving about, dont use short-cuts. If any liquid oil, water, grease and chemical is spilled, wipe up immediately.
Wear safety shoes with anti-slip soles and metal toe-caps to protect the feet from falling objects. Use only stable piles of boxes, adequate and strong scaffolding and secure ladders for working at heights. Ladders must be ascertained okay before use, placed at correct angle and on a firm base. They must be secure to avoid sideways movement at the top or outward shift from the base, and long enough; at least one metre above the platform you wish to reach.
Hand tools: There are many hand tools in use and they give rise to numerous accidents. This is because; the tools may be worn out, broken or worse still not suitable for the job concerned. Precautions: Regularly examine hand tools. Dont use tools that are defective. It is an unsafe act.
They cause injuries to the hands or eyes. Handles must be securely fitted to files, scrapers, screws drivers, and hammers and they must not be split [See Fig. Do not use hammers with chipped heads, a piece may fly off and injure the eye or hands. Use the correct size of spanner; incorrect size can slip and cause injury. Do not use chisels with mushroomed heads, a piece could fly off and cause injury [See Fig 1. Use a tool for what it is made for.
Dont use a screw driver or pliers to do the work of a spanner. Keep workplace clean and tidy and put tools in a safe place after use. Never carry loose tools in the pocket. You may slip and fall on them and cut your body. It is usually assumed that these injuries may be caused by handling excess weight and the only regulation that exists in connection with this is the Factories Act rule which says a person shall not e employed to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to cause an injury.
However, the main cause of these injuries is the adoption of incorrect body position and faulty handling techniques. Injuries associated with manual handling include: back strains, hernias, fractures, bruises, cuts.
Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials by Bruce J. Black
Causes of these injuries are specifically: i unsafe practices e. Precautions: Get a firm grip on the object. Keep fingers and hands away from pinch points especially when putting materials down. Wipe off greasy, slippery or dirty objects before trying to handle them. Keep hands free of oil and grease. Inspect materials for jagged edges, burrs, rough or slippery surfaces. Wear gloves, hand leathers or other protectors.
Unit of competency details
The Six-step Lifting Procedure:. Keep feet parted: One foot should be kept alongside the object being lifted and one behind. The rear foot is in position for the upward thrust of the lift.
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There is greater stability with feet comfortably spread. Back: Use the sit-down position and keep back straight but not vertical. A straight back keeps the spine, back muscles and organs of the body in correct alignment. It minimizes the compression of the guts that can cause hernia.
Arms and elbows: The load should be drawn close and the arms and elbows tucked into the side of the body. When the arms are held away from the body, they lose much of their strength and power. Tucking the arms in also helps keep the body weight centred. Palm: Palm grip is very important in lifting.
Use the full palm since fingers alone have little power. The fingers and the hand should be extended around the object to be lifted. Chin: Tuck in the chin so your neck and head continue the straight back line and keep your spine straight and firm. Body weight: Position body so its weight is centred over the feet. This provides a more power line of thrust and ensures better balance. Start the lift with a thrust of the rear foot. Equipment can cause accidents if they malfunction, operators attention is distracted, operators concentration is lowered y fatigue or stress, operator cannot handle equipment, etc.
Precautions: Ensure you know how to stop the machine before you set it in motion. Remain concentrated while the machine is in motion.
Never leave your machine unattended while it is in motion. Do not distract or startle other machine operators. Never use compressed air to clean a machine; it may blow in your face or someone elses and cause eye injury.
Never clean any swarf with bare hands. A suitable rake should be used. Avoid loose clothing; wear a snug-fitting suit and ensure that any necklace is tucked in does not dangle. Do not wear rings or wrist watches at work; they may get hooked on projections. Always ensure that all guards are correctly fitted and in position to prevent operator coming in contact with moving parts of machinery.
They include: 1. If dressing is available, apply directly over the wound and press it down firmly. Cover with a pad of soft material and retain the dressing and pad with a firm bandage. Send for a doctor or ambulance. Never use an adhesive for dressing; apply no lotions or oil.