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C , Liddell, R. Scott A Greek-English Lexicon , rev. Stuart Jones, R. McKenzie , Oxford Squatriti, Washington D. Cavallero et al. Francastel ed. Gayangos, 1, London, Mez, The Renaissance Of Islam , trans. Bakhsh, D.

Margoliouth, Patna, Rabe ed. Rotman, Byzantine slavery and the Mediterranean world , Cambridge Mass. Sivo, Studi recenti su Liutprando di Cremona , in Quaderni medievali , 44, , p. Bekker ed.


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Migne ed. Trabelsi eds. Trapp, W. Diethart eds. Jahrhunderts , 1 A-K , Wien, Verlinden, Ist mittelalterliche Sklaverei ein bedeutsamer demographischer Faktor gewesen? Zaborski ed. See also Liutprando de Cremona The references to Liudprand works will be made using their Latin titles and chapter numbers. Tougher , p. Liudprand in his attacks follows the much older tradition. See for example Leo the Deacon I.


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  5. Liudprand in other place wrote about a certain eunuch — a commander of the Byzantine soldiers — who was captured by the Saracens. Afterwards they executed all his men, but decided not to kill him explaining that it would be disrespectful to them to kill a eunuch Relatio De Legatione Constantinopolitana c. The mentioned story above was seen by them as not fitting the paradigm. Sadly, Antapodosis ends in the middle of the embassy and therefore we do not have this narration. Carzimasium autem Greci vocant amputatis virilibus et virga puerum eunuchum; quod Verdunenses mercatores ob inmensum lucrum facere et in Hispaniam ducere solent.

    Antapodosis VI.

    The history of Leo the Deacon : Byzantine military expansion in the tenth century

    It was criticised by Hartmut Hoffmann and Peter Schreiner wrote extensively against the proposition that it was Liudprand, who wrote the Greek letters. Hoffmann , p. Baldwin , p. It seems also, that sometimes there is confusion over what it meant between the Khazars who were living on the banks of Black Sea and the Kharezm describing the country known as Khwarizm or sometimes Hwarizm, which was located to the south of the Aral Sea. To make thing somewhat confusing, there were, it seems, close relations between Khwarezm and Khazars and even one of Khazar kings had a name Halis, which means Khwarezmian.

    See Lewicki , p. Gil , p. Jankowiak , p. To make matter more complicated, some sources mention Armenia as a place where slaves were castrated for trade in Arab world, Nazmi , p. Thus the information about slave trade is far from conclusive and this is a topic that should be studied more. The Khazar merchants were known to buy slaves in Central and Eastern Europe and transport them to the Caliphate.

    It would be strange that slaves be transported through all Europe, while they could easily be taken directly to the final destination.


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    The difficulty of proper castration does not seem as a valid explanation for seeing Verdun as viable point on a trade route between Central and Eastern Europe on one side and Khwarezm on the other. Verlinden repeated this interpretation in Verlinden , p. Ibn Hawqal wrote about the extensive trade network that connected the Muslim world with Slavic lands.

    He was to claim that most castrated Slavs were coming from Spain, where this procedure was to be made. What makes his account not fitting Verlinden's proposition, is that the trade route he implies was coming through Maghreb. There is no place for Constantinople on it. Lewicki , p. On the other hand Ibn Chordadhbeh wrote that Rhadanites were dealing among other things in slave trade from Western Europe to the East, particularly to Egypt.

    It should be noted that Ibn Chordadhbeh describes a very extensive trade network that encompasses all lands between Spain and China. Lewicki, , p It is well attested, that Jewish merchants traded with nearby Khazars and were present in their lands, see Lewicki , p. We should also be aware, that while most slaves from Slavic lands that came to Mesopotamia from north of it, it was not only way possible.

    There are some cases of slaves being traded to Iberia and from there through Maghreb and Egypt finally came to the Middle East — Mesopotamia. See, Lewicka-Rajewska , p. She follows Lewicki , p. Lombard , p. He writes that the Arabic Q. While most read this as Verdun over the river Meuse, it is possible — and some argue more fitting — to point at modern Verdun-sur-le-Doubs.

    THE HOLY (BLACK) ROMAN EMPIRE(193 AD -1453)

    See Toch , p. Toch here bases his assumption on Aronius — Dresdner - Lewinski, , no.

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    It should be mentioned that these authors were not first to see it this way. They direct readers to older work, where it was first proposed. While he proposes this identification of Verdun, he also does not rule out a possibility, that it was a mistake and Liudprand thought here about Verona. About the trade role of Verdun see Ashtor , p. See there also p.

    On Verdun see also Trabelsi , p. On Jews see footnote on p. Rotman , p. Still, it seems that Toch's argumentation expressed throughout his career is gaining higher ground, see for example Holo , p.

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    Kowalska , p. The explanation for such interpretation is given in note 35 on p. In short, Arabian geographers use often to name Hungarians the word Turks. Geographers are important here, as the text of Ibrahim's relation is known through the text of well known historian and geographer Al-Bakri who lived in eleventh century. This is of course an interpretation of interpretation and should be treated with a grain of salt.

    Both take the identification of Turks with Hungary for granted and there is hardly any doubt about it expressed in their texts. The name field is required. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5.

    Preview this item Preview this item. Series: Dumbarton Oaks studies , Subjects Byzantine Empire -- History, Military -- Byzantine Empire. Leon Diakonos.